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Write a brief description of your project here
Write a brief description of your project here. What is this project about? Why is this topic important? What is your goal?
Here you write a brief introduction to the problem and the situation. This sets the stage for the Needs Assessment (NA) and explains why the NA is taking place. Common traits of a quality introduction include:
- An opening statement that grabs the attention of the reader
- An accurate introduction to the problem
- An explanation on why this is worth investigating, that is, conveying the importance of the need
- Target demographic
- Information on the institution
- A closing sentence stating what the NA is going to investigate
Here you write a description of the optimal situation. Going under the assumption that the project will go well, what people will be doing differently from what they are doing now, why they should be doing these things, why these changes are important, and the results that the instructional designer (you) are aiming for. Focus upon the learner, not the instruction that would come from determining that instruction is necessary. Do not typically mention “lessons” or “instruction” here. This section could be written in ways such as: “Learners who are proficient with X are able to do Y, and Z” or for a simple example, “Learners who can count to ten without looking at their fingers can count in the dark. This allows them to play hide-and-seek in the dark.” You are describing the learner who already HAS the knowledge or is ALREADY performing optimally. One simple way to start this section is by answering the following questions and then finish by putting them into paragraph format.
What is the individual who has already learned the optimal skills able to do (the skilled individual), that is, what are the results of their skills?
How does the skilled individual specifically perform these tasks differently from an unskilled individual?
Why does the skilled individual perform these tasks?
Why are these skills and/or actions important now or in the future?
How did these individuals gain these skills?
What are the results that the instructional designer (you) are aiming for?
How do you know this information?
Here you write a description of the actual situation. This section is written just like the desired situation but you are instead focusing upon the learners that do not have the desired skills. This section aligns with what you wrote in the optimal but shows something of the opposite. Going on the previous examples above: “Learners who are not proficient with X are unable to do Y, and Z” or, “Learners who can’t count to ten without looking at their fingers cannot count in the dark. This often results in games lasting too long and the learners getting home after curfew.” One simple way to start this section is by answering the following questions and then finish by putting them into paragraph format.
What is the individual who does not have the optimal skills unable to do (the unskilled individual), that is, what are the results of their inability to perform?
How does the unskilled individual specifically perform these tasks differently from a skilled individual?
Why is the unskilled individual unable to perform these tasks?
What is the impact of a lack of these skills and/or actions upon the future?
How did these individuals develop their current bad habits or lack of skills?
Why does this need to change?
Why has no one taught them these skills?
How do you know this information?
Gap and the Causes of the Gap
The gap is the difference between the optimal and current, that is why the current is not optimal. Describe the gap and the cause of the gap.
What do you see as the cause(s) of this gap? The causes could be a lack of information among the learners, lack of the right tools (e.g. software, etc.), no incentives to the learner to do well, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of ability, and lack of motivation (which is not necessarily the same as incentives). There are likely to be multiple causes in many situations, but instruction can be one of the solutions if one of the causes is a lack of knowledge and skills. So be sure you try to establish why you think that an instructional unit is going to be part of the solution. Sometimes problems like this can be solved in other ways; sometimes they cannot be solved with instruction at all.
Here you write a clear concise statement of the goal of the instruction. The statement should be clear, accurate, and succinct. It should be one sentence. This goal statement (one goal, please) will guide the rest of the project.
A complete goal statement should describe the following:
- The learners
- What learners will be able to do in the performance context
- The performance context in which the skills will be applied
- The tools that will be available to the learners in the performance context
An example of a complete goal statement would be the following: “The Acme call center operators will be able to use the Client Helper Support System to provide information to customers who contact the call center.” All four components of a goal statement are included in one sentence.
Goal and Instructional Analysis
This was defined in the Needs Assessment section. Do not change it, copy and paste the instructional goal to here.
In order to accomplish this goal, the learner will need to …. Here you identify and sequence the major steps required to perform the goal and classify them into one or more of the learning domains (Intellectual, Verbal, Psychomotor, Attitudes), and explain why.
DO NOT detail how you will teach here. List the steps that learners must take in order to successfully reach the instructional goal. That is, look at the instructional goal and think what the 3 – 7 big things (major steps) that you have to do in order to reach that goal. Then analyze each of the major steps into its constituent parts. Present this list in a hierarchical structure with number system (1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc.) that allows easy identification of each element.
Start with the main steps and then substeps. Keep breaking down the steps until you reach entry skills. Identify what entry skills are on your list. You can use a diagram or a chart to present it.
Note: Entry skills are the skills that should have already been mastered by the learner. Therefore, these skills don’t need to teach in the instructional unit. The entry skills directly associated with your task that will appear later in your prerequisite assessment(s) section.
Learner and Context Analysis
Here you analyze the characteristics of the target learners and the context in which the learning and performance are going to be taking place.
Below is a simple table that you can use for this portion of the assignment. You can easily add or remove rows as needed.
|Information Category||Data Source||Learner Characteristic||Implication|
|Attitudes Toward Content and Potential Delivery System|
|Education & Ability|
Learning Context Analysis
|Information Category||Data Source||Characteristic||Implication|
|Compatibility with Instructional Requirements||
|Adaptability to Simulate Workplace|
|Adaptability for Delivery Approaches|
|Learning Site Constraints|
Performance context analysis
Performance Context Analysis
|Information Category||Data Source||Characteristic||Implication|
|Relevance of Skills|
Review your instructional goal statement and the instructional analysis in previous pages before writing objectives. Here you should rewrite the instructional goal statement to a terminal objective and write performance objectives for steps that have been identified in the instructional analysis section.
Terminal objective derived from instructional goal. Rewrite the Instructional Goal as a performance objective, which contains condition, behavior, and criteria.
Subordinate objectives derived from the instructional analysis. Write a performance objective for each goal step, substep, and subordinate skill in the instructional analysis, with numbers that correspond. These objectives should include the condition under which the skill will be performed, the skill to be formed, and the criteria to be used to assess learner performance.
Create three types of assessments to check the skills and knowledge of the learners. Types of assessments include entry skills tests (prerequisites tests), pre-tests, practice tests, and post-tests. Most of you may not have practice tests, just Assessments for Entry skills (prerequisites test), BEFORE (pre-test), and AFTER (post-test).
Be sure that you include all parts below in each of your assessments.
- Instructions to the assessor
- Instructions to the student
- Actual Assessments
- Answer key, rubric, etc.
You can add your assessments directly to this section or create them in separate files. If you have separate files for the assessments, upload them to your Google Drive, make them available to me, then create hyperlinks to them.
Instructional Strategies and Design Document
Overall Strategies and Media
The delivery system used for this instruction will be……. and provide a detailed description of why the strategy is being used.
The media chosen for this instruction will include…..and provide a detailed description of why the media is necessary and its purpose
Clusters and related Performance Objectives
The performance objectives are divided into _______ clusters.
|Cluster number and a title (e.g. 1 – Title of the cluster)||Performance objective numbers (e.g. 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.1.1)|
Table of Gagne’s Events of Instruction and Keller’s ARCS Model
For each cluster of objectives, include Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction and Keller’s ARCS model of motivation. The table below is set up for Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction; add Keller’s ARCS model to the appropriate cell in the table below in italics or in parenthesis.
The number of clusters and table organization may vary.
|Gagne’s Nine Events||Cluster 1
|Gain Attention||Describe the approach that will be used for each event. Remember that this table is to provide instructions for a design team.
|Inform learner of Objectives|
|Stimulate Recall Prior Learning|
|Present Stimulus Material|
|Provide Learning Guidance|
|Enhance Retention and Transfer|
In this part of the assignment, you will create instructional materials for students and instructors.
Add your instructional materials here
Formative Evaluation Report
Include a paragraph or two (more if really necessary) on what the project set out to accomplish, why it was done, what the product being evaluated is, and so forth. This should be a short summary, not a repeat of everything that you have done up to this point. One key issue is the purpose of this tryout: what are you trying to find here (Instructor workbook, student workbook, media used?)
How did you do the tryout? Who was the audience? How were they chosen? What procedures did you follow in the tryout? What data did you gather during it?
Results and Discussion
What happened? Summarize the data that you collected from tests, checklists, surveys, or questions asked during the tryout, and so forth. Discuss what these data mean for the products being evaluated, the needs assessment, the analysis, the design, the learners, etc. Be sure to summarize here without reporting on each and every detail of what someone said, and so forth. When you discuss the meaning of the data, try to connect it to the part of the ID process that the data seem to support or question.
This does not have to be a long report, but it should be complete, well-written, etc. It will not be assessed on whether the instruction was successful but on whether you performed a good tryout, report on it well, and base your revisions on the actual results.
Here you will explain what revisions you would now make in your instructional product, from typo correction to redoing the analysis and design. Explain why you would make those revisions, as much as possible basing them on the data you collected. This report might be quite short if there were a few problems with the instruction in the tryout. Or it could be long, where you have to discuss a variety of things that did not seem to work well and that therefore need to be changed.
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